Banishment and transportation have been important factors in the dispersion of the Gypsies.
Gypsies, have been in the Americas since 1498, when Columbus brought some on his third voyage to the West Indies .
They were banished from Germany in 1497, Spain in 1499, France in 1504, England in 1531, Denmark in 1536, Moravia in 1538, Scotland in 1541, Poland in 1557, Venetia in 1549,1558, and 1588, etc.; to such banishment is probably due the fact that in 1564 we find in the Netherlands a Gypsy woman, Katarine Mosroesse, who had been born in Scotland. Besides the transportation, already noticed, of Scottish Gypsies to Jamaica, Barbadoes, and Virginia, of Portuguese Gypsies to Africa and Brazil, of Basque Gypsies to Africa, and of English Gypsies to Botany Bay, we know that some time prior to 1800 Gitanos were transported from Spain to Louisiana; whilst in 1544 we find one large band of Egyptians being sentenced at Huntingdon to be taken to Calais, the nearest English port on the Continent, and another being shipped at Boston in Lincolnshire and landed somewhere in Norway.
After the American Wars of Independence, Australia was the usual destination for Romanichal transportation.
In the 17th century Oliver Cromwell sent Romanichal Gypsies as slaves to the American southern plantations, there is also documentation of English Gypsies being owned by freed black slaves in Jamaica, Barbados plus Cuba and Louisiana.
Name: John Smith :Age: born1834 :Year: 1863 Trial Place: Wells: State: WA STATUS: M 3 chn Ship: Merchantman :Occupation: Hawker
Name: Thomas Smith : Age: 42 : Year: 1798 :Trial Place: Hertford State: Nsw : Ship: Barwell : Alias: Gipsey Tom
Australian Convict Transportation Registers – Other Fleets & Ships, 1791-1868
Name: Newcomb Boss
Convicted Date: 13 Jan 1819
Voyage Date: Apr 1819
Piece: HO 11/3
Place of Conviction: Northampton
County of Conviction: Northampton
Said on image in "good condition" sentence Life. For stealing a Gelding
According to Robert Dawson's book,he was the son of either Lucy (lura)Boswell and Riley Boss or as he was also known James Heron) but also maybe Shurensi(SUSAN) Smith could be his mum ?>
He was atributed more than one wife ,as well as Ann (Bobbum Smith) a Mary and a Sarah! he must have worked quick as he was transported in 1819 so would have been either 24 or 22 depending on 1795/97 dob.! unless it was when he got back as he returned to England and used the name Jones ,according to the late Owen Durkin he was in Tasmania and was called Newcombe and ended up in New South Wales he presumably got a ticket of leave,where he worked for variouse employers and saw a good bit of Australia before returning to England. He was pardoned as shown below .
Name: Newcombe Boss
Arrival Year: 1819 :Vessel: Canada
Piece: HO 10/52
Province: New South Wales
Title: Pardons :-Year(s): 1838-1841 ::Place of Conviction: Northampton
Australian Convict Index 1788-1868
Name: James Stanley: Age:23 : Year:1838 :Birth Place:Hampshire: State:Nsw :Ship:Emma Eugenia: Occupation:Basketmaker
Name: James Hart : Age: 22 :Year: 1836 : Birth Place: Hampshire:State: Nsw :STATUS: S: Ship: Recovery 3 Occ: Hawker
Name: John Cooper: Age:35: Year:1840 :Birth Place:Windsor : State:Nsw STATUS:M 1m: Ship:Eden Occupation:Horse dealer
Name: Lazaraus Wells Age: 22 Year: 1835 : Birth Place: Dorsetshire: State: Nsw: Ship: Royal Sovereign 2: Occupation: Stable boy/grinding tinker
Name: Ambrose Smith Age: c1760 : Year: 1788 : Trial Place: Gloucester: State: Nsw Ship: Neptune: Comments: d1790 Occupation: travelling tinker
Name: Sarah Mills :Age: 19 :Year: 1836 : Birth Place: Wiltshire :State: Nsw :STATUS: S :Ship: Elizabeth 5 :Occupation: Hawker - Name: Jonathon Davies Age: 21; Year: 1835 : Birth Place: Oxfordshire: State: Nsw STATUS: S Ship: Westmoreland : Occupation: tinker/ razor grinder
Name: James Smith Age: 19 :Year: 1838 :Birth Place: Essex :State: Nsw Ship: Emma Eugenia :Occupation: Tinker
Name: Henry Hearne: Age: 1830 :Year: 1863 :Trial Place: Middlesex: State: WA STATUS: M :Ship: Merchantman :
Comments: D. 17.1.1881 Fremantle prison hosp paralysis :Occupation: Sweep
Name: Hezekiah Draper:Age: 1809 :Year: 1857 : Trial Place: Exeter :State: WA : Ship: Sultana :Occupation: Dealer
Name: Joseph Rolfe:Age: 30:Year: 1834 :Birth Place: Surrey :State: Nsw :STATUS: S :Ship: Henry Tanner :Occupation: hawker Name: William Smith :Age: 35 : Year: 1835 : Birth Place: Surrey :State: Nsw :STATUS: M 3m :Ship: England 2 : Alias: PEACOCK John Occupation: Horse dealer/farm labourer
Benjamin Cooper :Age: 23 Year: 1836 :Birth Place: Berkshire:State: Nsw :STATUS: S Ship: Recovery 3 :Occupation: hawker/plasterer .
Name: John Lee :Age: 1829 :Year: 1852 :Trial Place: York :State: WA :STATUS: U:Ship: Stag :Comments: d. 20.1.1895 Mt Eliza :Occupation: Horse dealer
Name: George Smith :Age: 1827:Year: 1858 :Trial Place: Middlesex:State: WA :STATUS: M :Ship: Lincelles :Comments: Smith Mrs kin 4 Goldsmith Grove Goldsmith Rd Hackney. D.14.12.1869 :Albany convict hosp dysentry :Occupation: Horse dealer.
Name: William Smith :Age: 1824 :Trial Place: York:State: WA :STATUS: W :Ship: Marion:Occupation: Horse dealer
Name: James Smith :Age: 1839 :Year: 1861:Trial Place: Hertford :State: WA :STATUS: U :Ship: York: Occupation: Horse dealer
Name: William Stanley :Age: c1740 :Year: 1788 :Trial Place: Salisbury :State: Nsw :Ship: Alexander
Name: Sylvanus Buckland :Age: 1834 :Year: 1851:Trial Place: Southampton :State: WA :Ship: Dudbrook :Comments: d.1890 Murray Occupation: Blacksmith .
Name: James Chilcot Year: 1811 Trial Place:Convicted Date: 31 Mar 1810 Somerset State: Nsw Ship: Admiral Gambier
(Sent in by Coralie in Australia Thanks)
On 19th March, 1807 at the Leicestershire Lent Assizes in England John Hearn, Solomon Herring, Sarah Hearn and Jane Smith were charged with stealing a pig. John Hearn was sentenced to transportation for seven years and the other three were acquitted. (SRNSW Reel PRO2752) The Leicester Journal & Midland Counties Advertiser, Friday March 27th,1807 reads:- "At our assizes which terminated on Monday last the following sentences were passed upon the different prisoners in the County and Borough Gaol. S.Hern, Mary Hering, S.Hering, and J.Smith for stealing a pig. J.HERN for stealing a pig to be transported for seven years". (There is no mention of whether Sarah Hearn was his sister or his wife.?)
On 2nd July, 1808 John Hern No.1320 (37.18) left Portsmouth aboard Admiral Gambier 1. It was a sloop of 501 Tons built at Newcastle in 1808. There were 200 males embarked and no females. Three died on the voyage. The master was Ed. Harrison and there was no surgeon. They arrived in Sydney on 20th Dec. 1808, a voyage of 171 days.
1811 Muster No.2692 , Residence N.S.W., John Hearne convict, male, Ship of arrival Admiral Gambier, Trial date March, 1807, Trial place Leicester, Sentence 7 years, PRO N2279, AO2298.
On 5th April, 1814 John Hearn received a Certificate of Freedom No.5/1320 Vessel Admiral Gambier, Year Arrived: 1809 (sic), Where Convicted: Leicester Ass., When Convicted: 19th Mar.1807, Term: Seven Years, Native Place: Leicestershire, Calling: Tinker, Age: Forty five, Height: 5ft.8in., Complexion: Dark Yellow, Hair: Black, Eyes: Black, Gipsey (sic). Date of Certificate: 5.4.1814. General Remarks: Finger on right hand crooked.
(Register of Pardons & Tickets of Leave Vol 1 page 16 SRNSW 4/4427 C.O.D.18)
1814 Muster No.2072 John Hearn lives Parramatta Admiral Gambier 1, Free, Off Stores, Tinker.
From 1816 or 1817 he co-habited (I can’t find a marriage record) with Mary Flannigan, a Catholic convict from Ireland. John was also known by the surname of SMITH at various times.
Children of John and Mary:
1818 Francis Hearne
1819 Sarah Ann Hearne
1821 Joseph Hearne
1823 Mary Ann Hearne
1827 Eleanor “Ellen” Hearne (my ancestor)
1829 Rose Hannah Hearne
1834 John Hearne.
John HEREN the father died 1860 and Mary HERN the mother died in 1850.
Note(From Sandy Buckland)
1. This article is extracted from the file CONVICTS.ZIP, which was authored by a Barbara Turner in 1992 and which is available on many genealogical bulletin boards (BBSs) world-wide.
The New Holland Morning Post of 18 October 1791 is a fictitious newspaper which appeared as a four-page "composite newspaper" in the Sydney Daily Mirror on Tuesday 4 March 1969. In the article which announced the publication, the Mirror advised that the newspaper, one of a series of two covering the Second and Third Fleets, was "compiled by Cirrel" The third fleet of 11 ships arrived in 1791, with over 2000 convicts. The newspaper report states that 194 male convicts and 4 female convicts died during the voyage, and that though conditions on board ship weren't as "diabolical" as the previous year, they were still outrageous.
The convicts from Ireland who arrived on board the "Queen" are not included in the newspaper lists. As before, the list was compiled in London as so, there is no way of knowing which people died on the voyage out, or did not leave England for any reason.
From the "NEW HOLLAND MORNING POST", 18th October, 1791.A list of criminals who have come to our shores in recent months. Our readers will find hereunder a List of Persons transported as Criminals to New South Wales in the Ships as following, via: Atlantic*
William and Ann, Britannia, Matilda, Salamander, Albemarle, Mary Anne, Admiral Barrington, Active and Gorgon.
Greet from information provided by the Public Library of NSW and particularly its Archives Department" (now State Records (NSW)).Lovel George Alias Gipsey George Middlesex 7yrs
Lovell William Dorset 7yrs
Smith Samuel Alias Thomas Hicks Dorset 7yrs
EXCERPT FROM GYPSY FOLK TALES BY FRANCIS HINDES GROOME:-
To transportation Australia certainly owed its earliest Gypsies. In 1880, a few months before his death, Tom Taylor wrote to me:--'The only Gypsy I ever knew who had travelled among "the people" was one Jones, who used to drive a knife-grinding wheel at Cambridge. Having "left his country for his country's good" in the old transportation days, he had made his escape from Australia, and, the ship aboard which he had stowed himself putting into a Spanish port, had landed, met with some of the Zincali, and travelled with them for some time. He was looked on as a master of "deep Romany" among the Gypsies round Cambridge.' Mr. MacRitchie has a letter containing a longish list of wealthy Australian Gypsies, whose grandsires were bitchadé párdel ('sent over'); yet, according to the Orange Guardian of May 1866:--'The first Gypsies seen in Australia passed through
Orange the other day en route for Mudgee. Although they can scarcely be reckoned new arrivals, as they have been nearly two years in the colony, they bear about them all the marks of the Gypsy. The women stick to the old dress, and are still as anxious as ever to tell fortunes; but they say that this game does not pay in Australia, as the people are not so credulous here as they are at home. Old "Brown Joe" is a native of Northumberland, and has made a good deal of money even during his short sojourn here. They do not offer themselves generally as fortune-tellers, but, if required and paid, they will at once "read your palm." At present they obtain a livelihood by tinkering and making sealing-wax. Their time during the last week has been principally taken up in hunting out bees' nests, which are very profitable, as they not only sell the honey, but, after purifying and refining the wax, manufacture it into beautiful toys, so rich in colour and transparency that it would be almost impossible to guess the material' (quoted in Notes and Queries, 28th July 1866, p. 65).